Notes on the Breviary

AMDG

Breviary notes
HolySee
These seasonal notes pertain to the Calendar of 1962.
The Calendar is the same for the Tridentine Mass (a.k.a. Extraordinary Form of the Roman Rite) and the Latin Breviary of 1962. There is more leeway for Holy Masses in terms of options, such as votive Masses; there is no similar leeway for the Breviary, although adding the Office of the Dead is permissible.
The current  Season is listeted twice -both under THE CURRENT  SEASON and under SEASONS OTHER THAN THE CURRENT ONE in the sequence shown in the Index.
Index
1. The Season of Advent
2. The Season of Christmas
3. The Season of Epiphany
4. The Sundays after Epiphany
5. The Season of Septuagesima
6. The Season of Lent
7. The Season of Passiontide
8. The Season of Easter
9.  Ascension-tide
10. The Octave of Pentecost
11. The Sundays after Pentecost

THE CURRENT SEASON.

11. The Sundays after Pentecost (From 6-10-2017 to 12- 2-2017)
This period starts with the First Vespers of Trinity Sunday (First Sunday after Pentecost) and ends before the First Vespers of the First Sunday of Advent.
The First Sunday after Pentecost is never celebrated on the Sunday, as the Feast of the Most Holy Trinity is celebrated. However, one uses the proper of the First Sunday for the Ferial day Masses that week. The First Sunday collect is used for the Oratio of the Hours of the Divine Office on ferial days.  The time of Sundays after Pentecost is one of the two time periods listed under the Season Throughout the Year: the other part of the year in this category consists of the Sundays after Epiphany. Both time periods of this Season share certain characteristics.
The ferial days are 4 Class ferias. This means that all feasts, including the 4th Class Feast of Our Lady on Saturday, take precedence over ferial days.
The Propers of the ferial days for the Breviary are the same for a given day of the week. The only variation is the Oratio which is taken form the preceding Sunday.

The other common feature of the two parts of the Season Throughout the Year is their variable length. This is due to the fact that Easter is a mobile Feast, i. e., not falling on the same calendar day every year.  For each year, the date of Easter Sunday determines the dates of both Septuagesima Sunday (marking the end of the time of Sundays after Epiphany) and Trinity Sunday (marking the beginning of the time of Sundays after Pentecost.) Since the number of days from Septuagesima Sunday to Trinity Sunday is the same each year, the total number of Sundays of the Season Throughout the Year is approximately the same each year, either 29 or 30. The variation is due to the date for the First Sunday of Advent. There can be no more than 6 Sundays after Epiphany, nor less than 23 Sundays after Pentecost. Some or all of the Sundays not celebrated after Epiphany are simply transferred to the time of Sundays after Pentecost, between the 23rd Sunday and the last Sunday after Pentecost. Those Sundays not celebrated after Epiphany are simply transferred to the time of Sundays after Pentecost, between the 23rd  Sunday and the last Sunday after Pentecost. If this transfer occurs,  the Propers for the Benedictus and Magnificat antiphons for the Divine Office and for the Mass, the Collect, Secret, Post-communion prayer, Lesson and  Holy Gospel are taken from  the  Sundays after Epiphany The Introit, Gradual, Alleluia, Offertory and Communion antiphons are taken from the 23rd  Sunday after Pentecost.This year there will be 25 Sundays after Pentecost, with some of the Propers (for the Holy Mass, the Collect, Secret, Post-communion prayer, Lesson and  Holy Gospel, for the  Divine Office, the Benedictus and Magnificat)  are taken  from the 6th Sunday after Epiphany on November 19th.

 

SEASONS OTHER THAN THE CURRENT ONE

postEpiphany
1. The Season of Advent (From 11-28-2015 to 12- 24-2015)

The Season of Advent is the preparatory season before the Season of Christmas.

It beings with the 1st Vespers of the 1st  Sunday of Advent and it ends before the 1st Vespers of Christmas. Although there are four weeks in Advent, its length is variable, depending upon the number of weekdays after the 4rh Sunday of Advent until December 24th.

As a preparatory Season for Christmas, Advent has some penitential features. There is   no Te Deum at the end of ad Matutinum on Sundays and ferial days. On ferial days during the week, ad Laudes II is said. When ad Laudes II is said, the 1st   psalm is always the penitential Psalm 50. The posture for the Oratio (Collects) is changed from standing to kneeling.  On all Wednesdays and Fridays of the ferial office, additional prayers called Preces (Prayers) are said at ad Laudes and ad Vesperas before the concluding Oratio (Collects).

The ferial days of Advent are 3rd class until December 16th, 2nd class between December 17th and December 23rd. The Vigil of Christmas, December 24th is 1st Class. The other seasons with 3rd Class ferial days are Lent and the first week of Passiontide.

The Sundays of Advent are 1st Class. At ad Matutinum, the 3 Lessons are taken from the prophet Isaiah.

During Advent, 1st, 2nd and 3rd Class Feasts take precedence over 3rd Class ferial days and1st and 2nd Class Feasts over 2nd and 3rd Class ferial days. If the Office of the day is that of a Feast, the Season of Advent is commemorated both at ad Laudes and ad Vesperas. Commemoration consists in saying the Benedictus antiphon (ad Laudes) or the Magnificat antiphon (ad Vesperas), followed by the Versiculum (Versicle) and the Oratio (Collects).

Advent has its own Common. The same Invitatorium (Invitatory), Capitulum (Chapter), Hymnus (Hymn), Responsorium(Response), Versiculus (Versicle) are used every day when the office of the Season is said. On Sunday, the same five antiphons are used for the psalmody of the psalms for ad Vesperas I (1st Vespers), ad Laudes and ad Vesperas II. The same antiphons (1-4) are used for four of the minor Hours (ad Primam, ad Tertiam ad Sextam and ad Nonam) of that particular Sunday and the ferial days of the following week. Each day has its proper antiphon for the Benedictus and Magnificat.

These features are common to the whole Season.

For the ferial days of the 2nd Class between December 17 and 23rd, there are proper antiphons for the psalmody of the psalms of ad Laudes. The “O” antiphons for the Magnificat proper to these days take precedence over any other antiphons.

This season also includes Quator Temporum (Ember days), occurring after the 3rd Sunday of Advent. Quator Temporum takes place four times each year.

2. Christmas-tide – the Season of Christmas (From 12-24-2015 to 1- 5-2016)

The Season of Christmas is the first of the 2 parts of Christmas-tide. The second part is Season of Epiphany.
Christmas-tide starts with the 1st Vespers of Christmas on December 24 and ends after ad Completorium on the last day of the Epiphany Season, January 13 which is the 2nd Class Feast of the Commemoration of the Baptism of Our Lord.
The Season of Christmas extends from the 1st Vespers of Christmas on December 24  to ad Nonam on January 5th. The season can be subdivided into the Octave of Christmas (December 25 – January 1) and the following days.
The Octave of Christmas is a 2nd Class Octave. January 1, the Day of the Octave is also a 1st Class Feast; the days within the Octave are 2nd Class ferias.  Three 2nd Class Feasts are celebrated on the first three days of the Octave, namely the Feasts of Saint Stephen Protomartyr, Saint John the Apostle and the Holy Innocents. These feasts have their own propers. On the first three days, the Octave is commemorated both at ad Laudes and ad Vesperas. There are no other Saints’ Feastdays during the Christmas cycle, only three commemorations; two are within the Octave and one after it. For the days within the Octave, the propers of The Feast of Christmas are used. The Sunday within the Octave is a 2nd Class Sunday.
The Sunday after the Octave is the 2nd Class Feast of the Holy Name of Jesus.
The ferial days after the Octave are 4th Class. For the ferial days, the seasonal propers are used. Since Saturday during that time is a 4th Class ferial day, one uses the 4th Class Office of Sanctae Mariae in Sabbato (Our Lady on Saturday). There is no commemoration of the feria.
The readings at ad Matutinum are taken from Saint Paul’s letter to the Romans.
3. Christmas-tide –  The Season of Epiphany (From 1-5-2017 to 1-13-2017)
The Season of Epiphany is the second part of Christmas-tide. It starts with the First Vespers of The Feast of Epiphany on January 5 and ends with ad Completorium on the Feast of the Commemoration of the Baptism of Our Lord on January 13.
The Feast of Epiphany is a 1st Class Feast, while its former Octave Day, the Feast of the Commemoration of the Baptism of Our Lord,  is a Second Class Feast. The ferial days are Fourth Class.  There is no other Feastday during the Season of Epiphany, only one Fourth Class commemoration. Since Saturday during that time is a Fourth Class ferial day, one uses the Fourth Class Office of Sanctae Mariae in Sabbato (Our Lady on Saturday); there is no commemoration of the feria.
On the First Sunday after Epiphany the  Feast of the Holy Family is celebrated and no commemoration of the Sunday is made. On ferial days, the proper of the time is taken from the Feast of Epiphany. However, each day has its own proper Benedictus and Magnificat antiphon.
The Oratio (Collects) used is the one of the Feast of Epiphany for the ferial days before the First Sunday after Epiphany for the Ferial day Masses that week and the Oratio (Collects) of the First Sunday after Epiphany after Sunday.
The Te Deum is said at the end of ad Matutinum, even on ferial days.
The readings at ad Matutinum are taken from the letter of Saint Paul to the Romans before the First Sunday after Epiphany and from the First Letter to the Corinthians after Sunday.
The chief characteristic of this season is splendour, with pictures of homage by the three Magi, bringing gold, myrrh and frankincense to the newly-born Incarnate Word of God, until now hidden from the world in Bethlehem. Let us pray that God also makes His wishes manifest to us on how serve Him best!
4. The Sundays after Epiphany  (14th January  2017 – 11th February 2017)
This period  starts after January 13, the Feast of Commemoration of the Baptism of Our Lord, which concludes the Season of Epiphany, and ends on the day before Septaguesima Sunday.
The length of this part of the liturgical year is variable, because the day of Easter is a mobile Feast, i. e., not falling on the same calendar day every year. Since the number of days from Septuagesima Sunday to Easter Sunday is the same each year, the date of Septaguesima Sunday also varies from year to year.
There can be no more than 6 Sundays after Epiphany. Any Sundays not celebrated after Epiphany are simply transferred to the time of Sundays after Pentecost. This year Septaguesima Sunday is on February 5th and there are 4 Sundays after Epiphany.
The time of Sundays after Epiphany is one of the two time periods listed under the Season Throughout the Year: the other part of the year in this category consists of the Sundays after Pentecost. Both time periods of this Season share certain characteristics.The time of Sundays after Epiphany is one of the two time periods listed under the Season Throughout the Year: the other part of the year in this category consists of the Sundays after Pentecost. Both time periods of this Season share certain characteristics.
The ferial days are 4th Class ferias. This means that all feasts, including the 4th Class Feast of Our Lady on Saturday, take precedence over ferial days.
The Propers of the ferial days for the Breviary are the same for a given day of the week, i.e., they are the same for every Monday, but different from the ones assigned for Tuesdays though Fridays. The only variation is the Oratio which is taken form the preceding Sunday.
The 1st Sunday after Epiphany is never celebrated on the Sunday, since this Sunday is the Feast of the Holy Family which is celebrated within the Season of Epiphany, i.e., between Jan. 6th and 13th. However, its Propers are used for the Ferial day Masses after Jan. 13th before the 2nd Sunday of Epiphany and its Oratio for the Oratio of Hours of the Divine Office.
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5. The Season of Septuagesima (2-11-2017 – 2 -28 -2017)
The Season of Septaguesima starts on Saturday before Septaguesima Sunday and ends the day before Ash Wednesday. This Season consists of:
1. Septaguesima Sunday and the following week
2. Sexagesima Sunday and the following week
3. Quinquagesima Sunday and the next two days.
Septaguesima is the Latin word for 70, i.e., the 70 day before Easter or more exactly, the 7 decades before Easter. It is a preparatory period for the sombre time of Lent. This is reflected by omission of the Alleluia after the Gloria at the beginning of the Divine Office. This Alleluia is not said until Easter, but it is replaced by Laus tibi Christe (praise to Thee, Christ). In the Divine Office, we formally say goodbye to the Alleluia by repeating Alleluia twice after both Benedicamus Domino and the response of Deo gratias at the conclusion of the First ad Vesperas of Septaguesima.
The more serious tone is also shown by the following Rubrics for the Divine Office of Sundays and ferial days (Class IV):  Te Deum is not said at the end of ad Matutinum. At ad Laudes [and at] ad Laudes II, first psalm is always Psalm 50 (Miserere). Otherwise, the Rubrics for the Ferial days are the same as throughout out the year, with one exception: There is a Magnificat antiphon for each Ferial day at Holy Mass. The Gloria is not said on Sundays and ferial days (Class IV).
Making use of the Season
Let us reflect on the graces received during the joyous times of Christmas and make plans to solidify the virtues inspired by these graces during Lent, i.e., what bad habits do you plan to eradicate which hamper the practice of these virtues? Let us prepare for making use of the rich spiritual fare of Lent when there will be for each day a different Holy Gospel reading on which we can meditate as a preparatory practice during the Season of Septaguesima, we can start using a combination of the Sunday Holy Gospel and the daily Magnificat antiphon.
6. The Season of Lent (3-1-2017  –  4-1-2017) 
The Season of Lent is the first part of the penitential Lenten Season before Easter. The second part of the Lenten Season is Passiontide.
The Season of Lent is 4 and half weeks long, stretching from Ash Wednesday to the end of the week after the 4th Sunday of Lent.
Its Ferial days are 3rd class, except Ash Wednesday (1st Class Feria) and the 3 Ember Days in the week following the 1st Sunday of Lent.
The only other season with 3rd Class ferial days is Advent. However, there is a difference. During Advent, 3rd Class Feasts take precedence over 3rd Class ferial days. During the whole of the Lenten Season only 1st and 2nd Class Feasts are celebrated, whilst 3rd Class Feasts are simply commemorated at ad Laudes.
On 1st and 2nd Class Feasts, the Lenten feria is commemorated both at ad Laudes and ad Vesperas.
In the preparatory Season of Septaguesima, some penitential features, such as the replacement of the Alleluia with Laus tibi Domine Rex aeternae gloriae (Praise to Thee, King of eternal glory), no Te Deum at the end of ad Matutinum, and using ad Laudes II were introduced. All these features are retained, and more are added with additional Preces (Prayers) as part of ad Laudes and ad Vesperas on all Wednesdays and Fridays, before the concluding Oratio. The posture for the Oratio is changed from standing to kneeling.
Lent also has its own Propers. The same Invitatorium (Invitatory), Capitulum (Chapter), Hymnus (Hymn), Responsorium (Response), Versiculus (Versicle) and Antiphonae (Antiphons) are said at all Hours in all ferial days.
At ad Matutinum, the 3 Lessons are extracts of commentaries on the Holy Gospel by the Fathers of the Church and not Holy Scripture as on other ferial days. The use of the Common for Lent starts on Saturday ad Vesperas before the 1st Sunday of Lent and not on Ash Wednesday.
7. The Season of Passiontide (From 4-1–2017 to 4-15- 2017)
The Season of Passiontide is the second part of the penitential Lenten Season. The first part of the Lenten Season was the Season of Lent.
The Season of Passiontide is two weeks long, stretching from the 1st Vespers of Passion Sunday to the Paschal Vigil Mass.
Similar to the season of Lent, Passiontide has its own Propers, with the same penitential features as the Season of Lent. In addition, the Gloria Patri… of the Responsoria and of the end of the Invitatory at ad Matutinum are omitted.
This Season has two Sundays – Passion Sunday and Psalm Sunday, both of them 1 Class Sundays.
The ferial days before Psalm Sunday are 3rd class.
After Psalm Sunday, Holy Week begins.
All days are 1st Class ferial days during this week and no Feasts whatsoever may be commemorated, let alone celebrated.
Holy Week itself is divided into two portions. The rubrics of Passiontide are observed, up to, and inclusive of, ad Completorium Wednesday of Holy Week, with one additional feature: at ad Laudes each day has its proper antiphon.
On Tuesday and Wednesday of Holy Week at ad Matutinum the 3 Lessons are taken from the Book of Jeremiah.
After this, the Sacred Triduum (Maundy Thursday, Good Friday and Holy Saturday) follows. Each day of the Sacred Triduum (Maundy Thursday, Good Friday and Holy Saturday) has its own and unique Propers.
8. Paschal-tide – the Season of Easter (From 4-15-2017 – to 5-24-2017)
The Season of Easter is the first of the 3 parts of Paschal-tide. The second part is Ascension-tide; the third is the Octave of Pentecost.
Paschal tide starts with the Paschal Vigil Mass and ends before the 1 Vespers of Trinity Sunday (1st Sunday after Pentecost.)
The Season of Easter is 5 and half weeks long, stretching from the Paschal Vigil Mass to 1st Vespers of The Feast of Ascension .Easter Sunday and Dominica in Albis (Low Sunday), which concludes the Octave of Easter, are First class Sundays. The days within the Octave of Easter are 1st Class ferias, during which no other feasts can be celebrated. During the Octave, the readings at ad Matutinum, which consist of 3 lessons only, are taken from the homilies of the Fathers on the Holy Gospel of the Holy Mass of the day.
The remaining Sundays after Dominica in Albis (Low Sunday) are 2nd class Sundays, the ferial days are 4th class. Weekday feasts, including the 4th class Feasts of Sanctae Mariae in Sabbato (Our Lady on Saturdays) are celebrated, without the commemoration of the feria. The Sundays have their own Propers. For the ferial days, the seasonal Propers are used. Each day has its own proper Benedictus and Magnificat antiphon. One uniform feature for both Sundays and ferial days is the replacement of the antiphons for all Hours with a triple Alleluia before and after all psalms. This is applicable even for ad Laudes and ad Vesperas. There is no antiphon before or after each psalm or psalm segment. At ad Matutinum the antiphon is longer, but it is only said before and after all nine psalms The readings at ad Matutinum are taken from the New Testament – the Acts of the Apostles, Apocalypse and the Catholic letters (Saint James, Saint Peter, Saint John and Saint Jude.)
9. Paschal-tide – Ascension-tide (From 5-24-2017 to 6- 3-2017)
Ascension-tide is the second of the 3 parts of Paschal-tide. Ascension-tide starts with the 1st Vespers of The Feast of Ascension and ends before the 1st Vespers of Pentecost.
The Vigil of Ascension-tide is a 2nd class Vigil. The Feast of the Ascension is a First Class Feast. The Sunday after the Ascension is a 2nd Class Sunday. Ferial days are of the 4th class.
This liturgical season retains some characteristics of Paschal–tide, such as the replacement of the antiphons for all Hours with a triple Alleluia before and after all psalms and the Te Deum at the end of ad Matutinum, even on ferial days.
The seasonal proper is used on ferial days. There is no proper Benedictus and Magnificat antiphon during this time; thus these antiphons are taken form the seasonal propers.
The readings at ad Matutinum are taken from the Catholic Letters, namely of Saint Peter, Saint John and Saint Jude.
10. Paschal-tide – the Octave of Pentecost (From 6-3-2017 to 6- 10-2017)
The Octave of Pentecost is the third and last of the 3 parts of Paschal-tide. It extends from the 1st Vespers of Pentecost Sunday and ends before the 1st Vespers of Trinity Sunday (1st Sunday after Pentecost.)
The Octave of Pentecost is only 8 days long. The only other season as short as this is the Season of Epiphany Other common features of these two seasons are:
The 1st Sunday after the conclusion of the Season has its own title and Propers.
The Season following it is one of the two segments of the Tempus per Annum (Season Throughout the Year.)
The Divine Office during the Octave of Pentecost is very similar to that of the Octave of Easter. The days within the Octave are 1st Class ferias, during which no other feasts can be celebrated. During the Octave, the readings at ad Matutinum, which consist of 3 lessons only, are taken from the homilies of the Fathers on the Holy Gospel of the Holy Mass of the day.
Each day has its own proper lessons at ad Matutinum, its Benedictus and Magnificat antiphons and Oratio (Prayers.) The rest of the Office is as on Pentecost Sunday.
One unique feature of this season is the replacement of the Hymnus (hymn) at ad Tertiam with the hymn Veni Creator Spiritus (Come, Holy Ghost).
11. The Sundays after Pentecost (From 6-10-2017 to 12- 2-2017)
This period starts with the First Vespers of Trinity Sunday (First Sunday after Pentecost) and ends before the First Vespers of the First Sunday of Advent.
The First Sunday after Pentecost is never celebrated on the Sunday, as the Feast of the Most Holy Trinity is celebrated. However, one uses the proper of the First Sunday for the Ferial day Masses that week. The First Sunday collect is used for the Oratio of the Hours of the Divine Office on ferial days.  The time of Sundays after Pentecost is one of the two time periods listed under the Season Throughout the Year: the other part of the year in this category consists of the Sundays after Epiphany. Both time periods of this Season share certain characteristics.
The ferial days are 4 Class ferias. This means that all feasts, including the 4th Class Feast of Our Lady on Saturday, take precedence over ferial days.
The Propers of the ferial days for the Breviary are the same for a given day of the week. The only variation is the Oratio which is taken form the preceding Sunday.

The other common feature of the two parts of the Season Throughout the Year is their variable length. This is due to the fact that Easter is a mobile Feast, i. e., not falling on the same calendar day every year.  For each year, the date of Easter Sunday determines the dates of both Septuagesima Sunday (marking the end of the time of Sundays after Epiphany) and Trinity Sunday (marking the beginning of the time of Sundays after Pentecost.) Since the number of days from Septuagesima Sunday to Trinity Sunday is the same each year, the total number of Sundays of the Season Throughout the Year is approximately the same each year, either 29 or 30. The variation is due to the date for the First Sunday of Advent. There can be no more than 6 Sundays after Epiphany, nor less than 23 Sundays after Pentecost. Some or all of the Sundays not celebrated after Epiphany are simply transferred to the time of Sundays after Pentecost, between the 23rd Sunday and the last Sunday after Pentecost. Those Sundays not celebrated after Epiphany are simply transferred to the time of Sundays after Pentecost, between the 23rd  Sunday and the last Sunday after Pentecost. If this transfer occurs,  the Propers for the Benedictus and Magnificat antiphons for the Divine Office and for the Mass, the Collect, Secret, Post-communion prayer, Lesson and  Holy Gospel are taken from  the  Sundays after Epiphany The Introit, Gradual, Alleluia, Offertory and Communion antiphons are taken from the 23rd  Sunday after Pentecost.This year there will be 25 Sundays after Pentecost, with some of the Propers (for the Holy Mass, the Collect, Secret, Post-communion prayer, Lesson and  Holy Gospel, for the  Divine Office, the Benedictus and Magnificat)  are taken  from the 6th Sunday after Epiphany on November 19th.

 

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